Referensi Jurnal & Buku Politik

Administrative Science Quarterly, Volume 57, Number 4, December 2012

Sleight of Hand? Practice Opacity, Third-party Responses,
and the Interorganizational Diffusion of Controversial Practices
Forrest Briscoe and Chad Murphy
We examine the role of a practice’s opacity (versus transparency) in the interorganizational diffusion of
organizational practices. Though the opacity of a practice is typically thought to impede diffusion,
a political-cultural approach to institutions suggests that opacity can sometimes play a positive role.
Given that adoption decisions are embedded in a web of conflicting interests, transparency may bring
negative attention that, when observed by prospective adopters, inhibits them from following suit.
Opacity, in contrast, helps avoid that cycle. Using the curtailment of health benefits for retirees among
large U.S. employers (1989 to 2009), we compare the diffusion of transparent adoptions (i.e., partial or
complete benefit cuts) with opaque adoptions (i.e., spending caps that trigger disenrollment).
We find that transparent adoptions reduce subsequent diffusion of the practice to other organizations.
This effect is fully mediated by negative media coverage, which is itself conditioned by the presence of
opposition from interest groups. Opaque adoptions, in contrast, increase subsequent diffusion to other
organizations and are facilitated by the involvement of professional experts. Thus, in addition to providing
findings on practice opacity, our study contributes insight into how organizational fields shape diffusion
by illuminating the role of third parties in the spread of controversial practices.
interorganizational diffusion employment practices  institutional change
professions  social movements  legitimacy  retiree health benefits
How Entrepreneurship Evolves: The Founders of New Magazines in America, 1741–1860
Heather A. Haveman, Jacob Habinek, and Leo A. Goodman
We craft a historically sensitive model of entrepreneurship linking individual actors to the evolving social structures they must navigate to acquire resources and launch new ventures. Theories of entrepreneurship and industry evolution suggest two opposing hypotheses: as an industry develops, launching a new venture
may become more difficult for all but industry insiders and the socially prominent because of competition from large incumbents, or it may become easier for all people because the legitimacy accorded to the industry simplifies the entrepreneurial task. To test these two conflicting claims, we study the American magazine industry from 1741 to 1860. We find that magazine publishing was originally restricted to publishing-industry insiders, professionals, and the highly educated, but most later founders came from outside publishing and more were of middling stature. Gains by entrepreneurs from the social periphery, however, were uneven: most were doctors and clergy without college degrees in small urban areas; magazines founded by industry insiders remained predominant in the industry centers. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of grounding studies of entrepreneurship in historical context. It also shows that entrepreneurship scholars must attend to temporal shifts within the focal industry and in society at large. entrepreneurship  organizational founding  industry evolution status
Free Spaces as Organizational Weapons of the Weak: Religious Festivals and
Regimental Mutinies in the 1857 Bengal Native Army
Hayagreeva Rao and Sunasir Dutta
Free spaces are arenas insulated from the control of elites in organizations and societies. A basic question is whether they incubate challenges to authority. We suggest that free spaces foster collective empowerment when they assemble large numbers of people, arouse intense emotion, trigger collective identities, and enable individuals to engage in costly collective action. We analyze challenges to authority that invite repression: mutinies of regiments in the East India Company’s Bengal Native Army in India in 1857. We take advantage of an exogenous source of variation in the availability of free spaces—religious festivals. We predict that mutinies are most likely to occur at or right after a religious festival and find that the hazard of mutiny declines with time since a festival. We expect community ties to offer alternate avenues of mobilization, such as when regiments were stationed close to the towns and villages from which they were recruited. Moreover, festivals are likely to be more potent instantiations of free spaces when regiments were exposed to an oppositional identity, such as a Christian mission. Yet even free spaces have a limited ability to trigger collective action, such as when the political opportunity structure is adverse and prospective participants are deterred by greater chances of failure. These predictions are supported by analyses of daily event-history data of mutinies in 1857, suggesting that free spaces are an organizational weapon of the weak and not a substitute for dissent. social movements  collective identity  empowerment  organizing protest
Fatherhood and Managerial Style: How a Male CEO’s Children Affect the Wages of His Employees
Michael S. Dahl, Cristian L. Dezső, and David Gaddis Ross
Motivated by a growing literature in the social sciences suggesting that the transition to fatherhood has a profound effect on men’s values, we study how the wages of employees change after a male chief executive officer (CEO) has children, using comprehensive panel data on the employees, CEOs, and families of CEOs in all but the smallest Danish firms between 1996 and 2006. We find that (a) a male CEO generally pays his employees less generously after fathering a child, (b) the birth of a daughter has a less negative influence on wages than does the birth of a son and has a positive influence if the daughter is the CEO’s first, and (c) the wages of female employees are less adversely affected than are those of male employees and positively affected by the CEO’s first child of either gender. We also find that male CEOs pay themselves more after fathering a child, especially after fathering a son. These results are consistent with a desire by the CEO to husband more resources for his family after fathering a child and the psychological priming of the CEO’s generosity after the birth of his first daughter and specifically toward women after the birth of his first child of either gender.