Referensi Jurnal & Buku Politik

Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 22 Issue 4 (October 2012)

jurnal publicARTICLES
 
Race and Gender Bias in Three Administrative Contexts: Impact on Work Assignments in State Supreme Courts
Robert K. Christensen, John Szmer, and Justin M. Stritch
 
Do certain types of administrative processes better inhibit race and gender prejudices that may surface in the public workplace? We compare the effects of three distinct
administrative settings on race, gender, and other biases in the workload assignments of state supreme court justices—important public policy making settings that have been understudied in public administration. In particular, we model the extent to which majority opinion–writing assignment processes exhibit prejudice in states that use randomized assignments, rotated assignments, or fully discretionary assignments, respectively. Our findings confirm that administrative process matters. We use theories of status characteristics and administrative oversight to explain the relationship between administrative context and workload assignment patterns. Based on data from all 50 states, we discover that prejudice exists but that certain administrative processes serve better than others to suppress race and gender biases.
 
 
Does My Boss's Gender Matter? Explaining Job Satisfaction and
Employee Turnover in the Public Sector
Jason A. Grissom, Jill Nicholson-Crotty, and Lael Keiser
 
Abstract
Substantial literatures exist examining public personnel turnover and the role of gender in public management. We bring these two strands of research together to test hypotheses concerning the impact of manager gender on the job satisfaction and turnover of public sector workers. In particular, we test whether manager gender influences satisfaction and turnover per se versus the competing claim that gender congruence between managers and employees, regardless of gender, is the relevant construct. Using data from a nationally representative sample of public school teachers and principals and employing a fixed effects design that implicitly compares
male and female employees in the same school, we find evidence that supervisor gender matters for satisfaction and turnover. We also find important effects of gender congruence, which appear to be driven by lower satisfaction and greater turnover among male teachers with female principals.
 
 
Accountability in Higher Education: Exploring Impacts on State
Budgets and Institutional Spending Patterns
Thomas M. Rabovsky
 
Abstract
In recent years, performance-based accountability regimes have become increasingly prevalent throughout government. One area where this has received considerable attention in recent years is higher education, where many states have adopted funding policies that seek to tie institutional funding to objective measures of performance. To what extent have these policies been effective tools for restructuring financial incentives and exerting influence over administrative behavior? Using data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, this article finds that performance-funding policies have not had substantial impacts on state budgets but that they have had some limited influence on institutional spending priorities. Furthermore, effects on institutional spending were found
to be greater on public research universities than other public colleges.
 
 
Decentralization, Devolution, Financial Shortfalls, and State Priorities
in Service Programs in the Early 2000s
Michael R. Sosin
 
Abstract
Although decentralization and devolution in some ways increase state governments’ discretion, they in other ways may limit that discretion. The current study tests the thesis that, at least in the early 2000s, discretion declined in some states’ substance abuse service systems; states experiencing a financial shortfall came to adopt the federal government’s service priorities. These states largely acted because of the institutional dominance of the federal government. The thesis is supported by
analyses of two waves of data from a nationally representative sample of providers of outpatient substance abuse services. The study considers several uses of the findings: supplementing the perspective that argues that states lose discretion due to decentralization and devolution-induced economic disincentives, understanding the diffusion of federal policies relating to the Temporary Assistance to Needy Family program, generally suggesting some limits to state discretion, and thus
helping to reconceptualize the benefits and costs of decentralization and devolution.
 
 
The Tangled Web: Unraveling the Principle of Common Goals in Collaborations
Siv Vangen and Chris Huxham
 
Abstract
This article addresses a “goals paradox” that suggests that both congruence and diversity in organizations’ goals influence success in collaboration. Using extensive empirical data, we develop a framework that portrays goals as an entangled, dynamic, and ambiguously hierarchical web of variously perceived, higher-
and lower-level goals that can be characterized across six dimensions: level, origin, authenticity, relevance, content, and overtness. We then explore the paradox in terms of the framework and so propose a much elaborated theoretical understanding of it. This provides theoretical and practical understanding relevant to
management and governance in and of collaboration.
 
 
What Drives Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Public Sector? Evidence
from Germany’s Federal Labor Agency
Timo Meynhardt and Fabian E. Diefenbach
 
Abstract
Along with the introduction of private sector management tools, public servants are expected to act more entrepreneurially—as public managers. However, research lacks quantitative evidence on what drives entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in this context. Our article examines the antecedents of department -level EO in public sector organizations. By integrating different research streams into one study, we
combine partly opposing discourses. This deductive study develops and empirically tests hypotheses on antecedents identified from private sector corporate entrepreneurship literature and from the current debate on new public management and public value management. It uses data from 250 middle managers of Germany’s Federal Labor Agency to do so. Contrary to expectations, the influence of management support, work discretion, and resources is only limited. Furthermore, a focus on key performance indicators and goal ambiguity does not seem to impede EO. Instead, a multitude of expectations, middle managers’ localism, and position tenure have the greatest impact on department-level EO. As a result, this study provides insights into the strong role of antecedents outside of administration. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for both theory and practice.
 
 
A Hermeneutic Approach to Explaining and Understanding Public Controversies
Raul P. Lejano and Ching Leong
 
Abstract
Notwithstanding the growing use of interpretive analysis in public administration and policy research, its fullest potential for evaluating intractable public conflict has yet to be tapped. We develop a mode of narrative analysis, partly based upon Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutics, that shows promise for analyzing public disputes. We illustrate this with a case study in Los Angeles involving a contentious proposal to
inject recycled wastewater into the city’s water supply. The analysis reveals that, by representing opposing interests with a simplistic narrative, the water industry’s response has been superfluous. The latter assumes that impasse simply results from the public’s lack of information, the logical response being an information dissemination campaign. We employ a hermeneutic approach to reveal a set of
persistent issues that project proponents have hitherto failed to address. By respecting the inherent plurivocity and intertextuality of narrative, hermeneutics provides new inroads into controversial public issues. We close the discussion with implications for practice.
 
 
Public Participation, Procedural Fairness, and Evaluations of Local
Governance: The Moderating Role of Uncertainty
Mitchel N. Herian, Joseph A. Hamm, Alan J. Tomkins, and Lisa M. Pytlik Zillig
 
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to test whether the use of public participation by a local government increases perceptions of procedural fairness among the public and to propose an explanation for why fairness is a strong predictor of satisfaction with governmental decisions. To do this, we draw on the uncertainty management model to hypothesize that indications of procedural fairness can increase public support for government and its decisions and that fairness effects are greater for
individuals who are more uncertain (less knowledgeable) about the governmental body in question. To test the hypothesis, we embedded an experiment in a survey of the public that was used by a local government to inform its budgetary decisions. The results provide support for the notion that governmental use of public input does increase perceptions of governmental fairness and that, in turn, perceptions of fairness have stronger relationships with overall governmental assessments
for those who are relatively uncertain about a governmental institution.
 
 
Keeping the Lights On: How Government Funding Concerns Drive
the Advocacy Agendas of Nonprofit Homeless Service Providers
Jennifer E. Mosley
 
Abstract
Human service nonprofits have historically played an important role in advocating on behalf of the vulnerable populations that they serve. Growth in privatization has led many scholars and practitioners to wonder if increased dependence on government funds would compromise this role. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between government funding and advocacy participation, goals, and tactics through a qualitative investigation of advocacy involvement in the field of homeless services. Results demonstrate that having government funding is associated with managers being highly motivated to participate in advocacy in the hopes of solidifying funding relationships. As a result, advocacy goals are focused primarily on brokering resources and promoting the organization rather than substantive policy change or client representation. Furthermore, in order to be perceived as a
legitimate partner to government, organizations reject confrontational methods and advocate as insiders. Overall, these findings indicate perceptions about advocacy may need to shift as increased reliance on government funding has made advocacy participation and participation in collaborative governance virtually indistinguishable.
 
 
To Trust or Not to Trust? What Matters in Local Government-Vendor Relationships?
Meeyoung Lamothe and Scott Lamothe
 
Abstract
Relational contracting or collaborative governance has come to the forefront of scholarly studies of government privatization efforts. The concept of trust (between contracting governments and their vendors) is rising in importance as one of the central tenets of this type of governance. What is largely understudied in the midst of this increasing attention to the topic is identifying how and under what conditions trust is formed and sustained. Borrowing from economic, organizational, sociological, and management theories, we develop competing hypotheses to examine what determines the extent of trust contracting governments display toward their service providers. Our findings suggest that local governments tend to place more confidence in their vendors’ faithfulness and honesty when their contracting partners are from the same sector (i.e., other governmental units), had known reputations prior to the relationship, have strong community ties, and perform their tasks well. Interestingly, several economic theory-based explanations—rational choice and game theory, social exchange theory, and transaction cost economics —find only limited support.