Referensi Jurnal & Buku Politik

Journal of Public Administration Research & Theory Volume 22 Issue 3 July 2012

jorunal publicARTICLES
 Do Shocks Change Organizations? The Case of NASA
Amy K. Donahue and Rosemary O'Leary (p. 395-425)
The 50-year history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) spaceflight program is marked by spectacular accomplishments and devastating tragedy.
NASA has suffered three major disasters, each of which destroyed a spacecraft and killed its crew. In the wake of each accident, investigators and analysts identified causes and
recommended technical and organizational improvements that NASA should undertake. The NASA case presents an opportunity to examine the question: Do shocks change organizations? The article reviews three prominent theoretical models of organizational change. Then, using data derived from 5 years of participant observation, as well as government reports, academic investigations, and news articles, we present an analysis of whether the factors required for change identified in the literature were and are present at NASA. The results of this examination suggest that in the wake of these shocks, the agency undertook many technical and procedural changes, but that, as the literature predicts, there are also barriers embedded in the fabric of the agency that are likely to thwart change. We
conclude by examining the prospects for understanding change in public, private, and
nonprofit organizations of all sizes that experience shocks and offer propositions for future research.
Organizational Red Tape: A Measurement Experiment
Mary K. Feeney (p. 427-444)
Multiple public administration survey research projects have asked respondents to assess the level of red tape in their organizations. Many of these surveys use the following questionnaire item: “If red tape is defined as ‘burdensome rules and procedures that have negative effects on the organization’s effectiveness,’ how would you assess the level of red tape in your organization?” Unfortunately, no research has tested the ways in which the language used in this item may bias responses. This research uses data from a 2010 national survey of 2,500 local government managers in the United States to test three variations of the
Organizational Red Tape scale, investigating whether there is variation in perceived organizational red tape based on the question wording. The findings from this research contribute to the red tape literature by providing empirical
evidence that the definition used in the Organizational Red Tape scale, a commonly used questionnaire item in public administration research, influences responses about red tape perceptions.
Effects of Managers’ Work Motivation and Networking Activity on Their Reported Levels of External Red Tape
René Torenvlied and Agnes Akkerman (p. 445-471)
This study brings together two perspectives on managers’ reported levels of red tape. The work motivation perspective explains how managers’ characteristics, such as work engagement (alienation) or commitment, affect their reported levels of red tape. The external control perspective explains how managers’ feedback relations with external actors and organizations reduce miscommunications and conflicts between multiple sources of rules, regulations, and procedures. Hypotheses are derived about the effects of managers’ levels of work engagement, commitment to the organization, and networking activity with external actors and organizations on their levels of reported red tape. The hypotheses are simultaneously tested on a cross-sectional data set of Dutch primary school principals with information about their reported levels of externally generated general red tape (n = 792) and personnel red tape (n = 787). The results of the analyses suggest that work engagement
reduces and commitment increases reported levels of red tape. Networking activity with national government is associated with high levels of reported general red tape and personnel red tape. Networking activity with local government and interest organizations in the labor relations domain are associated with low levels of reported personnel red tape. Finally, commitment moderates the effect of networking with national government on general red tape and the effect of networking with interest organizations on personnel red tape. These results are discussed with reference to the two perspectives on red tape.
Desperately Seeking Management: Understanding Management Quality and Its Impact on
 Government Performance Outcomes under the Clean Air Act
Alexander C. Heckman (p. 473-496)
This study analyzes the impact of management quality, spending, problem severity, and political factors on states’ air pollution control outcomes and provides insights for improving the measures and methods used in public management and government performance research. The analysis illustrates the importance of selecting proper outcome measures and taking into account the interaction of management and spending when conducting empirical analysis into the causes of government performance. Additionally, the author demonstrates the benefits of conducting comparative empirical analysis using different, but theoretically connected, outcome measures. The findings and analysis presented should be of particular interest to public administration scholars seeking to conduct research that produces practical insights for public managers and policy makers on improving public management and government performance.
Organizational Capital in Boundary-Spanning Collaborations: Internal and External
Approaches to Organizational Structure and Personnel Authority
Craig Boardman (p. 497-526)
Despite a large body of scholarship elucidating mechanisms for aligning participant behaviors with public service goals in boundary-spanning collaborations, the most challenging of these collaborations—those with potential for lacking both common goals and common resources—have received relatively little attention from public management scholars. This study investigates approaches to structure and authority by managers of this sort of collaboration, specifically by the managers of cooperative research centers involving government, industry, and university actors.
The findings suggest external approaches to structure and authority when such controls are perceived by managers as valuable for eliciting participant contributions, yet difficult to develop internally, and internal approaches when such controls are perceived as valuable for eliciting contributions, yet unattainable externally. The findings have implications for public management research and theory and, more broadly, for research and theory on organizations and networks. Whereas the conceptualization of structure and authority as resources is not new, here these are
conceptualized as explicit rather than tacit, and therefore, in theory, as potentially transferrable across organizational boundaries rather than as a source of competitive advantage. The article concludes with propositions to test in future research.
The Link between Information and Bargaining Efficiency
Deanna Malatesta (527-551)
The article reviews the relevant theory and research linking information and bargaining efficiency and presents results of an analysis of negotiation times associated with 290 franchise renewal agreements. Data reveal three main findings: (1) information revealing a history of poor performance by the supplier resulted in a 74% increase in negotiation time, (2) a 1% increase in the value of a contract increased negotiation time by 18%, and (3) the participation of an expert resulted in a 24% decrease in negotiation time. We also consider and test various moderator and mediator effects and conclude that the length of the previous relationship between the parties neither directly nor indirectly affects the negotiation time in a
substantively meaningful way nor does it mitigate the negative effect of conflict history.
Political Influence on Street-Level Bureaucratic Outcome: Testing the Interaction
between Bureaucratic Ideology and Local Community Political Orientation
Helena O. Stensöta (p. 553-571)
A basic principle of good government is that politics should be restricted to the input side, whereas the bureaucracy should operate independently of political considerations. However, previous literature documents an implementation gap between unitary political aims and varied local outcomes, which occasionally can be attributed to political reasons; both bureaucratic ideology and that local
political constituencies can shape implementation and affect outcome. So far, however, research has neglected the question of whether one of these effects is conditioned by the other. This article presents original data on the political orientation of public employees in the Swedish Social Insurance Administration that allow these two factors to be tested together for the first time. The main finding is that neither the bureaucratic ideology nor the political orientation of the local
community independently affects the outcome but that the real effect of political ideology on implementation takes the form of an interaction effect between the two.
This interaction effect visualizes so that a rightward shif
Change-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Public Administration:
The Power of Leadership and the Cost of Organizational Politics
Eran Vigoda-Gadot and Itai Beeri (p. 573-596)
Using a well-grounded theory of organizational citizenship behavior, this study attempts to extend the meaning of the good soldier syndrome beyond its common boundaries of the business sector. We follow Bettencourt's (2004) conceptualization and model of change- oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) to explain why and how public employees engage in activities targeted at changing and improving the public work environment and its job processes even when no formal rewards are offered in return. We extend Bettencourt's model and demonstrate its usefulness and contribution to public administration organizations, focusing especially on leadership behavior, leader-member exchange relations, and perceptions
of organizational politics in public agencies. A field study of 217 public personnel in a large public health care organization yields interesting findings, demonstrating the uniqueness of change-oriented OCB over classical OCB measures (individual and organizational), the general positive effect of leadership on OCB and the moderating effect of perceptions of politics in this relationship. Implications of the findings
are developed and discussed in the context of modern public administration.
Overcoming Negative Media Coverage: Does Government Communication Matter?
Brooke Fisher Liu, J. Suzanne Horsley, and Kaifeng Yang (p. 597-621)
Public administration scholars often note that government should engage in more effective external communication to improve citizen trust and maintain political legitimacy. An important part of the belief is that more effective communication can lead to more favorable media coverage that ultimately shapes citizen trust in government. However, the link between government communication and media coverage remains empirically untested. Through a survey of 881 government and business communicators, this study tests the relationship between external communication activities and media coverage. The study shows that government organizations report being less likely to have favorable news coverage than their private counterparts, but most government organizations do report that their media coverage is favorable. Moreover, the results show that active media interaction, organizational support for communication, and adequate communication budget are associated with reporting more favorable coverage. In comparison, a different set of variables, except adequate communication budget, are found to affect whether business organizations report having more favorable media coverage.